[ Pobierz całość w formacie PDF ]
.See also cloud; mirrorcontrol: over algorithms, 28n1; and community composition, 68n5convergence and digital singularity, xxxiii, 97–105corporation: and activist organizations, 6; and Brown on “social contract” with consumers, 262; and customization, interest in, 248; and data capture, 224; effects of on democracy, 86; and hackathons, organization of, 164; computer networks, role of in creating, 186, 188; and shareholder logics, 252; and worker participation, 229corpus, 279; and algorithm training, 20–21, 24; in big data, 76counting, 95–97, 104.See also computation; computingcraft, 161–64; “craft autonomy,” 167, 168; “craftiness” and hackers, 161–64culture, xix, xxxvi, xl, 70–80; “algorithmic culture,” 25; as arising from play, 141–42; “coulter,” or plowshare blade, as subsidiary form of, 77; counter-culture, 160; Culture Digitally (scholarly blog), xi, xxiii, 237, 259; “culture of communalism,” 67; “culture of individualism,” 67; The Culture of the Copy, 96; digital and print, xxviii, xxxix; gaming subculture, xxxii, 145; meme as piece of digital culture, 199, 201; open-culture activism, 225; participatory culture, 228; therapeutic culture and sharing, 273; and Williams, xviicustomization, 244–49.See also personalizationcyberactivism, 6, 8.See also activismcybernetics, 35, 180; and the “California ideology,” 160; and computer memory, 208; and computing, 95; and culture, 75; Macy Conference on Cybernetics, 95cyberpunk, 208–9, 214–15cyberspace, 189; “Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” 6, 135; versus “meatspace,” 86, 208; as place, 68 (see also forum)cyborg, 209, 214; and Haraway, 75, 208data, xx, xxx–xxxi; analog data, 35; big data, xlii, 76, 97, 102–3; “cultural data,” 74; data center and storage, 54, 60–61 (see also mirror); metadata, xxii, 96, 99, 103; training data and algorithm, 21–22; “transborder data flow,” 122database, xiii, xxix; and algorithm, 19; and archive, 49–50.See also corpusDawkins, Richard, and coining of “meme,” 197–99, 201definition: of analog, 33–34; of communication and signal, 177; of culture, 72–73; of effigy, 282; of event, 109; of forum, 134; of geek, 149; of hack, 163; of information, 178–80; of meme, 200–202; of nerd, 154n4; of play, 142; separation of from Williams’s “keyword” concept, xx, 72, 77Deleuze, Gilles: and “games of mirroring,” 218; on individuals and “dividuals,” 247; and rhizome concept, 50; and the self, 250democracy, xxxiv–xxxv, 81–92; direct democracy, 12, 235–36; and internet, indirect relationship to, 193; and participation, 230, 234; “participatory democracy,” 231, 234; Tocqueville’s Democracy in America, xvii; Western democracies and contrast with China, 5, 9, 10Derrida, Jacques, and Archive Fever, 45–46, 47, 48, 207design: of algorithm, 21–23; of analog technology, 34–35; Burnett’s “Toward a Theory of Hypertextual Design,” 50; and flow, 123, 125digit.See finger as digit and digitaldigital, xxxii–xxxiv, 93–108; digital keyword, xx–xxi, 18; and relationship with analog, 31–32, 36–38digital humanities, 48, 49, 76, 279digitization, 37, 39, 245, 247–48, 294economization of information, 177engineer: software engineer use of “algorithm,” 19; and hackers, 158 [ Pobierz całość w formacie PDF ]